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Abstracts of volume 84, 2012

Koutecký P., Štěpánek J. & Baďurová T. (2012): Differentiation between diploid and tetraploid Centaurea phrygia: mating barriers, morphology and geographic distribution. – Preslia 84: 1–32.
Karyological variation, reproductive isolation, morphological differentiation and geographic distribution of the cytotypes of Centaurea phrygia were investigated in Central Europe. Occurrence of two dominant cytotypes, diploid (2n = 22) and tetraploid (2n = 44), was confirmed and additionally triploid, pentaploid and hexaploid ploidy levels identified using flow cytometry. Allozyme variation as well as morphological and genome size data suggest an autopolyploid origin of the tetraploids. Crossing experiments and flow cytometric screening of mixed populations revealed strong reproductive isolation of the cytotypes. Multivariate morphometric analysis revealed significant differentiation between the cytotypes in several morphological characters (pappus length, length and colour of appendages on involucral bracts, involucre width). The cytotypes have a parapatric distribution with only a small contact zone: diploids occupy the whole of the Central and North European geographic range of the species except for the major part of the Western Carpathians, whereas tetraploids are confined to the Western Carpathians and adjacent areas, both cytotypes co-occurring only in a limited area of intra-montane basins of the Western Carpathians. Based on this array of data, taxonomic treatment of the cytotypes as autonomous species is proposed. The name Centaurea phrygia is applied to the diploids and the name C. erdneri belongs to the tetraploids; nomenclature of hybrids with C. jacea is also resolved.
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Letz D. R., Dančák M., Danihelka J. & Šarhanová P. (2012): Taxonomy and distribution of Cerastium pumilum and C. glutinosum in Central Europe. – Preslia 84: 33–69.
As a result of inconsistencies in morphological characters, Cerastium pumilum and C. glutinosum have been misunderstood or confused in many European floras since the 1960s. In the second volume of the Flora Nordica, a revised treatment of C. pumilum s.l. is provided and this concept is tested here for eastern Central European populations. The cytometric and morphological part of the study is based on living plants from 85 populations in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Austria and Hungary. Flow cytometric analyses of the samples revealed two groups differing in ploidy level and corresponding to two cytotypes (a known octoploid, 2n ≈ 72, for C. glutinosum and yet unknown dodecaploid, 2n ≈ 108, for C. pumilum). Eleven morphological characters were scored or measured in plants of known ploidy level and the data set analysed using multivariate statistics (principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis); the two morphologically well-separated groups were identical with the two cytotype groups detected by flow cytometry. Based on these results, we suggest treating the detected cyto-morphotypes as the species C. pumilum and C. glutinosum. Our analysis further revealed that the traditionally used characters (glabrous vs. hairy adaxial surface and presence vs. absence of a scarious margin to the tip of the lowermost bracts) are not taxonomically informative. The characters best differentiating the species include indument on the lowermost vernal internodium, length of mature stylodia, length of glandular hairs on sepals and maximum diameter of mature seed. A key for identification of both species is also provided. A revision of almost 1600 specimens deposited in 16 Central European herbaria revealed that the species show different distribution patterns in Central Europe and partial habitat segregation. Specimens from the Czech Republic previously assigned to C. litigiosum were identified as C. pumilum; consequently, C. litigiosum must be removed from the Czech flora.
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Vít P., Lepší M. & Lepší P. (2012): There is no diploid apomict among Czech Sorbus species: a biosystematic revision of S. eximia and discovery of S. barrandienica. – Preslia 84: 71–96.
Sorbus eximia Kovanda, a hybridogenous species that originated from the parental combination S. torminalis and S. aria s.l., is thought to be an apomictic species, which includes diploid and tetraploid individuals. The present study confirmed the existence of only triploid individuals. A new tentatively apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 51) species from the S. latifolia group: S. barrandienica P. Vít, M. Lepší et P. Lepší is described based on a revision of S. eximia. This species is assumed to have originated from a cross between S. danubialis or S. aria s.l. and S. torminalis. A wide palette of biosystematic techniques, including molecular (nuclear microsatellite markers) and karyological analyses (chromosome counts, DAPI flow cytometry) as well as multivariate morphometric and elliptic Fourier analyses, were used to assess the variation in this species and justify its independent taxonomic status. Allopatric occurrences of both species were recorded east of the town of Beroun in the Český kras, central Bohemia (Bohemian Karst). A distribution map of the two species is provided. Sorbus eximia occurs at four localities (the total number of adults and juveniles is 100 and 200, respectively) in basiphilous thermophilous oak forests (Quercion pubescenti-petraeae), mesic oak forests (Melampyro nemorosi-Carpinetum), woody margins of dry grasslands (Festucion valesiacae) and pine plantations. Sorbus barrandienica has so far been recorded at 10 localities (ca 50 adults). Recent field studies failed to verify two of these localities. It is mainly found growing on the summits of hills, usually in thermophilous open forests (Primulo veris-Carpinetum, Melampyro nemorosi-Carpinetum, Quercion pubescenti-petraeae) and woody margins of dry grassland. Its populations exhibit minimal genetic variation and are phenotypically homogeneous and well separated from other Bohemian hybridogenous Sorbus species. The epitype of S. eximia is designated here, and a photograph of the specimen is included. Photographs of the type specimens and in situ individuals, and line drawings of both species are presented.
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Kitner M., Majeský Ľ., Gillová L., Vymyslický T. & Nagler M. (2012): Genetic structure of Artemisia pancicii populations inferred from AFLP and cpDNA data. – Preslia 84: 97–120.
Genetic variability within and among fragmented populations of Artemisia pancicii was investigated in order to obtain a general understanding of the genetic structure related to the successful protection of this highly endangered species. Genetic variation within and among 15 populations of A. pancicii in Central Europe was analysed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and sequencing of two chloroplast DNA regions. The resulting polymorphism of AFLP loci was interpreted using basic population genetic indices and statistical visualisation. The total genetic variability within the populations was high (Ht = 0.248) and a highly differentiated population pattern (Fst = 0.241) was revealed. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed high variation among the populations (82%). There was no significant correlation between the genetic and geographic distance matrices. This indicates that population relatedness is not reflected in their geography. This was also confirmed by cpDNA sequencing. Highly restricted gene flow among the populations and genetic drift has resulted in reduced genetic variability in the smaller and highly differentiated A. pancicii populations, and very probably implies the presence of self-incompatibility and prevalence of clonal reproduction. The conservation of genetic variability in A. pancicii requires the persistence of large and also of small populations (because of population differentiation). The most important factor for the preservation of this species in the localities studied is the application of appropriate conservation management (such as mowing, grazing or fire management).
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Stachurska-Swakoń A., Cieślak E. & Ronikier M. (2012): Phylogeography of subalpine tall-herb species in Central Europe: the case of Cicerbita alpina. – Preslia 84: 121–140.
Cicerbita alpina was selected to elucidate the phylogeography of tall-herb species, an ecological group whose Quaternary history is rarely addressed. This species is a typical component of subalpine herbaceous communities in the mountains of Europe. Samples collected for this study comprised the entire range of species, with a focus on those in the Carpathians. The analysis based on AFLP fingerprinting revealed a lack of a strong phylogeographical structure implying that the different parts of the present-day range have not been isolated for a long period of time probably due to the biological characteristics of the species, such as its ability to disperse over great distances. However, the genetic structure indicates some phylogeographical trends, which may reflect traces of survival in local refugia and subsequent diversification into separate lineages during the last glacial period. Within the Carpathians, the division into the Western and South-Eastern Carpathian population groups is apparent. This division is maintained at a larger scale. In particular, the South-Eastern Carpathian group is similar to the Balkan populations, while the Western Carpathian populations are closely related to those in the Eastern Alps and Sudetes. The Scandinavian populations also have a genetic affinity with the latter group and originated from a source in the Eastern Alps or Western Carpathians, presumably via a stepping stone in a northern refugium.
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Čtvrtlíková M., Znachor P., Nedoma J. & Vrba J. (2012): Effects of temperature on the phenology of germination of Isoëtes echinospora. – Preslia 84: 141–153.
Isoëtes echinospora, a submerged aquatic quillwort, is native in northern latitudes and a rare glacial relict in mountain lakes in temperate Central Europe. A relic population of this quillwort in the Plešné jezero lake has recovered recently from a 30-year period of failure to reproduce caused by acidification. Early ontogenetic stages of the quillwort are considered to be the most vulnerable to environmental changes. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the phenology of germination of I. echinospora. In a two-year experiment, we examined the time course of germination of micro- and macrospores and establishment of sporelings under (i) natural in situ conditions in the Plešné jezero lake and (ii) at various temperatures (6–17 °C) in the laboratory. We developed a mathematical model that describes the temperature-specific temporal changes in the early ontogeny of I. echinospora. Our experiments clearly show that spores do not germinate at once but gradually over time if exposed to favourable temperatures. Generally, percentage germination tended to increase during the course of a season under most temperature regimes but was inhibited at the lowest temperature. With increasing temperature, microspores germinated earlier and more successfully than macrospores, as described by the model. Sporelings also developed faster at the higher temperature. However, the highest temperature used in the experiments (17 °C) desynchronized the phenology of germination in I. echinospora as it resulted in the two types of spore not being available for fertilization at the same time. Thus, climate change might affect interactions between temperature and the phenology of quillwort reproduction and threaten the survival of this species in Central Europe.
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Pyšek P., Danihelka J., Sádlo J., Chrtek J. Jr., Chytrý M., Jarošík V., Kaplan Z., Krahulec F., Moravcová L., Pergl J., Štajerová K. & Tichý L. (2012): Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic (2nd edition): checklist update, taxonomic diversity and invasion patterns. – Preslia 84: 155–255.
A complete list of all alien taxa ever recorded in the flora of the Czech Republic is presented as an update of the original checklist published in 2002. New data accumulated in the last decade are incorporated and the listing and status of some taxa are reassessed based on improved knowledge. Alien flora of the Czech Republic consists of 1454 taxa listed with information on their taxonomic position, life history, geographic origin (or mode of origin, distinguishing anecophyte and hybrid), invasive status (casual; naturalized but not invasive; invasive), residence time status (archaeophyte vs neophyte), mode of introduction into the country (accidental, deliberate), and date of the first record. Additional information on species performance that was not part of the previous catalogue, i.e. on the width of species’ habitat niches, their dominance in invaded communities, and impact, is provided. The Czech alien flora consists of 350 (24.1%) archaeophytes and 1104 (75.9%) neophytes. The increase in the total number of taxa compared to the previous catalogue (1378) is due to addition of 151 taxa and removal of 75 (39 archaeophytes and 36 neophytes), important part of the latter being the reclassification of 41 taxa as native, mostly based on archaeobotanical evidence. The additions represent taxa newly recorded since 2002 and reported in the national literature; taxa resulting from investigation of sources omitted while preparing the previous catalogue; redetermination of previously reported taxa; reassessment of some taxa traditionally considered native for which the evidence suggests the opposite; and inclusion of intraspecific taxa previously not recognized in the flora. There are 44 taxa on the list that are reported in the present study for the first time as aliens introduced to the Czech Republic or escaped from cultivation: Abies concolor, A. grandis, A. nordmanniana, Avena sterilis subsp. ludoviciana, A. ×vilis, Berberis julianae, B. thunbergii, Bidens ferulifolius, Buddleja alternifolia, Buglossoides incrassata subsp. splitgerberi, Buxus sempervirens, Corispermum declinatum, Cotoneaster dielsianus, C. divaricatus, Euphorbia myrsinites, Gleditsia triacanthos, Helleborus orientalis, Hieracium heldreichii, Koelreuteria paniculata, Lonicera periclymenum, Lotus ornithopodioides, Malus baccata, M. pumila, Miscanthus sacchariflorus, Morus alba, Muscari armeniacum, Paeonia lactiflora, Pennisetum alopecuroides, Pinguicula crystallina subsp. hirtiflora, P. grandiflora subsp. rosea, Podophyllum hexandrum, Pyracantha coccinea, Rhodotypos scandens, Rumex patientia × R. tianschanicus ‘Uteuša’, Salix cordata, Sarracenia purpurea, Sasa palmata ‘Nebulosa’, Scolymus maculatus, Spiraea japonica, Tagetes tenuifolia, Thuja occidentalis, Trifolium badium, Vaccinium corymbosum and Viburnum rhytidophyllum. All added and deleted taxa are commented on. Of the total number of taxa, 985 are classified as casuals, 408 as naturalized but not invasive, and 61 as invasive. The reduction in the number of invasive taxa compared to the previous catalogue is due to a more conservative approach adopted here; only taxa that currently spread are considered invasive. Casual taxa are strongly overrepresented among neophytes compared to archaeophytes (76.7% vs 39.4%), while naturalized but non-invasive taxa follow the reversed pattern (18.8% vs 57.4). However, these two groups do not significantly differ in the proportion of invasive taxa. Of introduced neophytes, 250 taxa (22.6%) are considered vanished, i.e. no longer present in the flora, while 23.3% became naturalized, and 4.5% invasive. In addition to the traditional classification based on introduction–naturalization–invasion continuum, taxa were classified into 18 population groups based on their long-term trends in metapopulation dynamics in the country, current state of their populations, and link to the propagule pressure from cultivation. Mapping these population groups onto the unified framework for biological invasions introduced by Blackburn et al. in 2011 made it possible to quantify invasion failures, and boom-and-busts, in the Czech alien flora. Depending on inclusion criteria (whether or not extinct/vanished taxa and hybrids are considered), alien taxa ever recorded in the Czech Republic contribute 29.7–33.1% to the total country’s plant diversity; taking into account only naturalized taxa, a permanent element of the country’s flora, the figure is 14.4–17.5%. Analysis of the dates of the first record, known for 771 neophytes, indicates that alien taxa in the flora have been increasing at a steady pace without any distinct deceleration trend; by extrapolating this data to all 1104 neophytes recorded it is predicted that the projected number would reach 1264 in 2050. Deliberate introduction was involved in 747 cases (51.4%), the remaining 48.6% of taxa are assumed to have arrived by unintentional pathways. Archaeophytes are more abundant in landscapes, occupy on average a wider range of habitat types than neophytes, but reach a lower cover in plant communities. The alien flora is further analysed with respect to representation of genera and families, origin and life history.
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Medvecká J., Kliment J., Májeková J., Halada Ľ., Zaliberová M., Gojdičová E., Feráková V. & Jarolímek I. (2012): Inventory of the alien flora of Slovakia. – Preslia 84: 257–309.
This is the first complete inventory of alien vascular plant taxa for the Slovak Republic. The presented database contains information on family affiliation, residence status, invasion status, time of introduction, mode of introduction, planting purpose, abundance and distribution within phytogeographic regions, types of invaded habitats and syntaxa, and life forms and geographical origin of the alien taxa. In total, 21.5% of the total flora is made of up of alien taxa, comprised of 282 archaeophytes that make up 6.6% and 634 neophytes 14.9% of the total number of taxa, respectively. The majority of the alien taxa are casuals (57.6%), 39.1% are naturalized and 3.3% invasive. Most of them come from Europe (32.8%) and Asia (32.8%), followed by Africa (12.2%) and North America (10.8%). The database contains members of 98 families of which the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Amaranthaceae and Rosaceae are the most represented. Almost 50% of the alien taxa are therophytes. Hemicryptophytes (26.3%) and phanerophytes (15.6%) are also abundant. More of the alien taxa were introduced deliberately (49.0%) than unintentionally (43.9%), and the majority were introduced as ornamental plants (55.9%). Of the total number of alien taxa, 45.2% are recorded from less than five localities. Most of them prefer human-made habitats; they are found in 137 phytosociological alliances, with those richest in alien taxa categorized as synanthropic vegetation.
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Merunková K., Preislerová Z. & Chytrý M. (2012): White Carpathian grasslands: can local ecological factors explain their extraordinary species richness? – Preslia 84: 311–325.
Semi-dry grasslands in the White Carpathian (Bílé Karpaty) Mountains on the Czech-Slovak border are famous for their extremely high species richness. In places they contain more than 130 species of vascular plants per 100m2 and for some plot sizes they hold world records in the number of vascular plant species, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Here we ask whether the high number of species in these grasslands can be explained by local ecological factors. We compared the White Carpathian grasslands with similar grasslands in adjacent areas in the west (southern Moravia) and the east (Inner Western Carpathians), which are on average notably poorer in species than those in the White Carpathians. In both of these areas, we sampled grasslands that were among the species richest in the regional context and had a similar physiognomy, species composition and ecology as those in the White Carpathians. We found 75 sites with >70 and >25 species of vascular plants per 100 m2 and 1 m2, respectively, in which we recorded species composition and local environmental conditions, including precipitation, soil depth, soil pH and nutrient concentrations, above-ground biomass production and nutrients in plant biomass. Although the White Carpathian grasslands were considerably richer in species than the richest grasslands in the adjacent regions, there were no differences in the values of the factors studied that could provide an unequivocal explanation of their high species richness. However, the values of the factors studied were within the ranges reported in the literature as conducive to high species richness in temperate grasslands. We conclude that the high species richness recorded in the White Carpathian grasslands cannot be explained by a single factor. It results from a unique combination of regional factors (long history of these grasslands, large size of individual grassland areas and their existence in a landscape mosaic with forests, scrub and small wetlands), local abiotic factors (soil pH, soil nutrient status, moisture regime and resulting grassland productivity that are suitable for many species from the regional species pool) and management (low fertilizer input and mowing once a year in late spring or summer).
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Gioria M., Pyšek P. & Moravcová L. (2012): Soil seed banks in plant invasions: promoting species invasiveness and long-term impact on plant community dynamics. – Preslia 84: 327–350.
Invasions by alien plant species significantly affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Investigations of the soil seed banks of invasive plant species and changes in the composition and structure of resident seed banks following plant invasions can provide valuable insight into the long-term implications of plant invasions. Soil seed banks play a major role as reservoirs of species and genetic diversity and allow for the persistence of a species at a locality, buffering environmental changes that may occur over time. Despite the emerging body of literature on ecological impacts of invasive plants on the diversity of resident communities, the long-term implications of impoverished soil seed banks for vegetation dynamics and ecosystem functioning have only recently begun receiving attention. Evidence has so far indicated that there is a correlation between the invasiveness of a species and the characteristics of its seed bank, and that changes in the seed banks of resident communities associated with plant invasions affect their biotic resistance to primary and secondary invasions. To promote the study of soil seed banks in the context of invasive species, we (i) summarize the functional roles of soil seed banks; (ii) describe how the capacity to form a seed bank may contribute to a species’ invasiveness using data from the flora of the Czech Republic, showing an increasing representation of species capable of forming long-term persistent seed bank from casual to naturalized to invasion stage; (iii) assess the impact of invasive plants on seed banks of resident communities, including the potential creation of conditions that favour secondary invasions by other alien species or native weeds, and long-term implications of such impact; and (iv) describe the potential effects of climate change on the soil seed bank in the context of plant invasions. We conclude with highlighting promising avenues for future research on invaded soil seed banks, and emphasize the importance of this knowledge in the development of control programs and restoration strategies.
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Dančák M., Duchoslav M. & Trávníček B. (2012): Taxonomy and cytogeography of the Molinia caerulea complex in central Europe. – Preslia 84: 351–374.
Perennial grasses belonging to the genus Molinia are widespread in most of Europe and consist of a polyploid complex of closely related taxa with a confusing taxonomy. Based on extensive sampling at 241 localities in Europe, four cytotypes were identified based on chromosome counts and results of flow cytometry: tetraploids (2n = 36), hexaploids (2n = 54), octoploids (2n = 72) and dodecaploids (2n = 108). While tetra- and dodecaploids were commonly recorded, octoploids were less common and only two hexaploid individuals were identified. Previously reported decaploid counts (2n = 90) from central Europe are probably erroneous and refer to 2n = 108. The tetraploid cytotype is distributed throughout Europe and broadly sympatric with other cytotypes. Octo- and dodecaploids were spatially separated with dodecaploids occurring in the western, central and south-central part of Europe and octoploids in the east-central and southeastern part of Europe. All quantitative characters measured (lengths of lemmas, anthers, caryopses and stomata, lengths of the longest hair on the callus and diameter of the culm below the panicle) showed a linear trend across ploidy levels. Tetra-, octo- and dodecaploid cytotypes formed almost non-overlapping groupings in principal component and discriminant analyses of morphological characters. The following taxonomic concept of this complex is proposed: Molinia caerulea (L.) Moench is a predominantly tetraploid taxon incorporating very rarely reported hexaploid and perhaps also diploid plants; higher cytotypes (2n = 8x, 12x) are considered to be M. arundinacea Schrank, consisting of two subspecies: a dodecaploid subspecies occurring in the southern and western part of central Europe and the octoploid Molinia arundinacea subsp. freyi Dančák in east-central and southeastern Europe.
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Velebil J. (2012): Sorbus omissa, a new endemic hybridogenous species from the lower Vltava river valley. – Preslia 84: 375–390.
Sorbus omissa is described as a new hybridogenous triploid (2n = 3x = 51) species belonging to the Sorbus latifolia group. This species is considered to be of hybrid origin, with S. danubialis and S. torminalis being its putative parental species. It is a stenoendemic whitebeam occurring in central Bohemia (Czech Republic) in the vicinity of the towns of Roztoky and Libčice nad Vltavou (Praha-západ district) in the valley of the lower Vltava river, where it grows primarily in oak forests (Viscario-Quercetum). The only two known populations contain approximately 150 individuals. This species differs from other similar Czech species of the S. latifolia group in having broadly elliptical to rhomboidal leaves with very shallowly lobed laminas, predominantly with 9–11 lateral leaf veins on each side, and is orange to orange-red fruit at maturity. Observation, morphological comparison and karyological (chromosome counts, DAPI flow cytometry) methods were used to identify this new species. A character-comparison table and a determination key including all taxa of the S. latifolia agg. endemic in the Czech Republic are provided. An illustration, a photograph and a distribution map of this new species are also presented.
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Krahulec F. (2012): History of the studies on the flora and vegetation in the Czech Republic. – Preslia 84: 397–426.
A brief history of the botanical research on the flora and vegetation in the Czech Republic is presented. This is done in the context of the progress in botany in neighbouring countries as well as the development of the society, especially the establishment of scientific institutions in the different countries. Important botanists who worked in other countries, but spent part of their life in what is now the Czech Republic, are also listed.
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Chytrý M. (2012): Vegetation of the Czech Republic: diversity, ecology, history and dynamics. – Preslia 84: 427–504.
This review summarizes basic information on the diversity of vegetation in the Czech Republic. It describes basic environmenal factors affecting vegetation, vegetation history since the last glacial, biomes occurring in the Czech Republic (zonal biomes of broad-leaved deciduous forest and forest-steppe, and azonal biomes of taiga and tundra), altitudinal zonation of vegetation and landscapes with an exceptionally high diversity of vegetation types (deep river valleys in the Bohemian Massif, karst areas, sandstone pseudokarst areas, solitary volcanic hills, glacial cirques, lowland riverine landscapes and serpentine areas). Vegetation types, delimited according to the monograph Vegetation of the Czech Republic, are described with emphasis on their diversity, ecology, history and dynamics.
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Kaplan Z. (2012): Flora and phytogeography of the Czech Republic. – Preslia 84: 505–573.
A review of the flora and phytogeography of the Czech Republic is given. The diversity of plants in this country reflects its geographic position in the centre of Europe, local natural conditions and the effect of intense human activity on the landscape. The Czech flora includes 148 families, 916 genera, 3557 species (plus 194 additional subspecies) and 609 hybrid vascular plants. Families richest in species are Asteraceae (662 species), Rosaceae (316), Poaceae (275), Fabaceae (170), Brassicaceae (148), Cyperaceae (127), Lamiaceae (112), Caryophyllaceae (108) and Apiaceae (100). Most of these species are native and 36.0% are alien. The spectrum of life-forms is dominated by hemicryptophytes (45.7%), followed by therophytes (22.3%), phanerophytes (14.4%), geophytes (9.3%), chamaephytes (5.1%) and hydrophytes (3.2%), while the percentage of epiphytes is negligible (only two species). Several species that occur in the Czech Republic are relicts from glacial and early postglacial periods. Examples of arctic, boreal, alpine, steppe and other sorts of relicts are listed. Because of the relatively small size of this country and the considerable climatic and vegetational changes caused by glaciations, which repeatedly eliminated the local flora, endemism is relatively low in the Czech Republic. All endemics are of Quaternary age (neoendemics). A revised list of endemic species and subspecies includes 74 taxa endemic to the Czech Republic and adjacent border regions, which is 2% of the total vascular plant diversity. Of these, 48 taxa are strictly Czech endemics (defined by the borders of the country), the distributions of the other 26 taxa extend slightly beyond the borders of this country (mostly by less than 1 km) in the summit areas of the Krkonoše/Karkonosze Mts and/or in the Králický Sněžník/Śnieżnik Kłódzki Mts. Hieracium and Sorbus are the genera with the greatest number of endemics (25 and 11 species and subspecies, respectively). Patterns in the distribution and occurrence of endemics in different types of habitat are discussed. The greatest concentration of endemics is in the Krkonoše Mts, where they occur mostly in subalpine habitats, such as natural grasslands above the timberline, summit rocks and rocky slopes, and various sites in glacial cirques including avalanche tracks. Other endemics of subalpine habitats occur in the Králický Sněžník Mts and Hrubý Jeseník Mts. Endemics at low altitudes mostly occur on rocky outcrops and in associated open thermophilous forests and grasslands, less frequently on open sandy areas, in fens and various types of forest. Maps of the distribution of endemics in the Czech Republic are presented. The majority of Czech endemics are rare and/or strongly endangered and included on the Red List of the Czech flora, and seven are extinct or missing. Changes in understanding of Czech endemics are reviewed and evolution of endemics discussed. The Czech Republic is situated at the intersection of several important European migration routes. The Czech flora is composed of almost all the floristic elements that occur in central Europe of which the Central-European geoelement is dominant. Other well represented geoelements include the Central-European-(sub-)alpine, Arctic-alpine, Boreal, Sub-boreal, Sub-Atlantic, Sub-Mediterranean, Pontic, Sub-pontic and South-Siberian. Examples of all geoelements are listed. The limits of the distributions of a number of widespread species are in the Czech Republic. These species are distinguished as boundary or outlying elements. Examples of species that in the Czech Republic are at the limits of their distributions, which range in different directions, are listed. Groups of species with similar ecogeographic features within the Czech Republic are distinguished as regional types of distribution (phytochorotypes). 15 basic phytochorotypes are listed, defined and illustrated using maps. Phytogeographical division of the Czech Republic is described. Three principal phytogeographical regions are recognized within the country, which are based on the dominant flora and vegetation that reflects specific regional topography and climatic conditions. These regions are further subdivided into phytogeographical provinces, districts and subdistricts. All of these phytogeographical units (phytochoria) are listed and their position illustrated on a map.
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Pyšek P., Chytrý M., Pergl J., Sádlo J. & Wild J. (2012): Plant invasions in the Czech Republic: current state, introduction dynamics, invasive species and invaded habitats. – Preslia 84: 575–629.
The Czech Republic has a strong tradition of research on synanthropic and alien plants, both historically and recently, which results in a good knowledge of alien flora and invasion patterns. In this paper the current situation of plant invasions in the country is reviewed from the viewpoint of the composition of the country’s alien flora (based on a recently published checklist of alien taxa) and that of the level of habitat invasions, expressed as the proportion of alien species among all species recorded, and large-scale patterns of invasions in landscapes. At present there are 1454 alien taxa recorded in the national flora, consisting of 350 archaeophytes, introduced since the beginning of Neolithic agriculture until the end of the Medieval Period, and 1104 neophytes, introduced in the Modern Period. In the last two centuries there was a steady increase in the number of alien taxa without a decelerating trend. Arrivals of neophytes from the Mediterranean region and extra-Mediterranean Europe proceeded at the same speed until ca the 1870s; thereafter the Mediterranean region started to be the main donor of the country’s alien flora. Most species native to more distant areas such as extra-Mediterranean Asia and North America were arriving later. Of the total number of alien taxa, 985 (67.7%) are classified as casual, 408 (28.1%) as naturalized but non-invasive, and 61 (4.2%) as invasive. Alien taxa contribute 33.3% to the total plant diversity ever recorded in the country, or 14.6% to the permanently present flora (excluding extinct natives and including only naturalized alien taxa). These figures are within the range reported from other European countries. Currently there are 11 archaeophytes and 50 neophytes with invasive populations in the Czech Republic. Factsheets of the invasive neophytes are provided with information on their invasion history, ecology, habitat affinities and impact, and the map of current distribution. The highest invasive species densities (illustrated by a map) as well as the highest levels of invasion in plant communities are found in cities and villages and their surroundings, floodplains of large rivers, disturbed regions in the north, and agricultural landscapes and forestry plantations in warm lowlands, especially in southern Moravia, and central and eastern Bohemia. The level of invasion in the country decreases with altitude, with neophytes responding to this factor more strongly than archaeophytes. A new quantification of the level of invasion for all phytosociological alliances of the Czech Republic is presented. The habitats and vegetation types harbouring the highest proportions of alien species in the Czech Republic are generally either those with a high level of disturbance or with fluctuating input of resources, especially nutrients, in some cases also water or light. Habitats with limited fluctuation of resource availability such as dry, wet and saline grasslands, base-rich fens, and broad-leaved deciduous woodlands appear to be rather resistant to invasion. Future spread of alien species will mainly depend on changing land use and climate.
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Grulich V. (2012): Red List of vascular plants of the Czech Republic: 3rd edition. – Preslia 84: 631–645.
The knowledge of the flora of the Czech Republic has substantially improved since the second version of the national Red List was published, mainly due to large-scale field recording during the last decade and the resulting large national databases. In this paper, an updated Red List is presented and compared with the previous editions of 1979 and 2000. The complete updated Red List consists of 1720 taxa (listed in Electronic Appendix 1), accounting for more then a half (59.2%) of the native flora of the Czech Republic. Of the Red-Listed taxa, 156 (9.1% of the total number on the list) are in the A categories, which include taxa that have vanished from the flora or are not known to occur at present, 471 (27.4%) are classified as critically threatened, 357 (20.8%) as threatened and 356 (20.7%) as endangered. From 1979 to 2000 to 2012, there has been an increase in the total number of taxa included in the Red List (from 1190 to 1627 to 1720) and in most categories, mainly for the following reasons: (i) The continuing human pressure on many natural and semi-natural habitats is reflected in the increased vulnerability or level of threat to many vascular plants; some vulnerable species therefore became endangered, those endangered critically threatened, while species until recently not classified may be included in the Red List as vulnerable or even endangered. (ii) Some increase in the number of species in particular categories can be attributed to the improved knowledge of taxonomically difficult groups for which previously only incomplete species lists were available. In addition, some native species were recently discovered as new to the country’s flora or described as new to science, and the status of their populations made Red-Listing necessary. (iii) Also improvements in our knowledge of the flora made the expert judgment more precise and some species were included in the list because their long-lasting vulnerability was recognized. In contrast, 23 taxa considered extinct or missing were rediscovered. This is almost one third of the number of extinct or missing taxa in the first version of the Red List published in 1979.
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Danihelka J., Chrtek J. Jr. & Kaplan Z. (2012): Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic. – Preslia 84: 647–811.
A checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic is provided, based on the Kubát et al’s Key to the flora of the Czech Republic from 2002 and volumes 7 and 8 of the Flora of the Czech Republic as taxonomic reference, and incorporating numerous floristic, taxonomic and nomenclatural novelties. Native, alien, both naturalized and casual, as well as frequently cultivated taxa are included. Species, subspecies, nothospecies and nothosubspecies, and some frequently used variety names are listed. For cultivated plants, the taxonomic rank of Group is widely applied. For practical purposes, 188 species aggregates and other informal species groups are defined. References are made to corresponding taxonyms in the Key or the two Flora volumes when name or orthography changes occurred. Most important changes in nomenclature, taxonomy, recently described taxa and additions to the country’s flora are annotated. The flora of the Czech Republic includes 3557 species (plus 194 additional subspecies) and 609 (plus 13 additional nothospecies) hybrids. Of these, 2256 species are native, 464 naturalized (228 archaeophytes and 236 neophytes) and 837 casual aliens. Further, 324 cultivated taxa of different ranks are listed. The list includes categorizations of alien species of Pyšek et al.’s second edition of the Catalogue of alien plants of the Czech Republic and Red List categorizations of Grulich’s third edition of the Red List of vascular plants of the Czech Republic, both published in Preslia in 2012.
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Kučera J., Váňa J. & Hradílek Z. (2012): Bryophyte flora of the Czech Republic: updated checklist and Red List and a brief analysis. – Preslia 84: 813–850.
The bryoflora of the Czech Republic is analysed using an updated version of the checklist that includes recent taxonomic and nomenclatural changes. In addition, the baseline data was completely revised using the IUCN 3.1 criteria. The main list includes 863 species of bryophytes (4 hornworts, 207 liverworts and 652 mosses) with 5 additional subspecies and 23 generally recognized varieties; 9 additional species are listed as of doubtful taxonomic status and 17 other species are evaluated as of uncertain occurrence. Of the 892 taxa evaluated, 46% qualified for inclusion in Red List categories (40 taxa in category RE, 70 in CR, 88 in EN, 93 in VU, 66 in LR-nt, 24 in DD-va and 30 in DD), while 54% are considered Least Concern (LC).We discuss the taxonomic problems that influenced our decisions when compiling both the check- and Red Lists, try to identify the alien, invasive and spreading species of bryophytes, and touch upon several phytogeographic aspects, including the questions of relictness and bryophyte endemics in the Czech bryoflora.
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Liška J. (2012): Lichen flora of the Czech Republic. – Preslia 84: 851–862.
This review of the lichen flora of the Czech Republic deals with the history of the research and highlights the most important summarizing publications. The diversity of the lichen flora is discussed and compared with that recorded in neighbouring countries. The main phytogeographic elements are outlined and illustrated with representative examples. The threat to the lichen flora in the Czech Republic is discussed in terms of the recently published Red List (version 1.1) and several endangered ecological groups of lichens with examples of the most threatened and extinct species are identified. Changes in the lichen flora along with the main causal factors are discussed. Air pollution, in particular sulphur dioxide was the most serious damaging factor in the 20th century. However, there has been a change in the trend in air pollution over the last two decades, with a decrease in sulphur and increase in nitrogen emissions, which has resulted in recolonization by formerly vanishing species of nitrophytic lichens (e.g. Xanthoria parietina) and decrease in the abundance of the toxitolerant acidophytic species Lecanora conizaeoides. Ongoing present changes are very dynamic and not yet fully recognized. Therefore, field surveys are very important and will result in the recording of further species new to the Czech lichen flora.
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Mikulášková E., Fajmonová Z. & Hájek M. (2012): Invasion of central-European habitats by the moss Campylopus introflexus. – Preslia 84: 863–886.
Although invasions by vascular plants are frequently studied, little is known about invasive bryophytes. Campylopus introflexus is an invasive moss endangering natural vegetation in western Europe and currently extending its secondary area eastwards. Therefore, we studied its ecology in the Czech Republic (central Europe). We updated its distribution, described colonized habitats in term of the composition of the vegetation, investigated substrate and water demands and which habitats in the Czech Republic are potentially at risk of invasion by C. introflexus. The first dataset contained 78 vegetation plots with C. introflexus from across the whole of the area investigated and included all the habitats colonized. The second dataset contained results of previous studies of the vegetation of pine forests both with and without C. introflexus and was used to determine the fine scale features of its habitat preferences within this habitat. Records of the vegetation plots in both datasets were numerically classified. We further calculated the similarity of the species composition of vegetation plots with C. introflexus with that of 26,998 vegetation plots without C. introflexus that were stored in a large database in order to predict the habitats that were likely to be colonized. Ecological demands were characterized by in situ research (soil samples from 52 vegetation plots) and ecological interpretation of the pine forest dataset. Further, a cultivation experiment was established with populations from 20 of the sites studied in order to test the ability of C. introflexus to grow in different soil and moisture conditions, and the data were evaluated by linear mixed effect models. We found that C. introflexus invades dry, nutrient poor acidic soils in a range of vegetation types, and is most common in coniferous forest plantations and drained bogs, where it colonizes open patches resulting from anthropogenic disturbance where there is little competition from other plants. The vegetation plots from the database that were similar in species composition to those with C. introflexus are mainly forest habitats broadly distributed in the Czech Republic. Cultivation experiments showed that this species does badly when growing in lime-rich or waterlogged soils. We conclude that the species has the potential to be common in central Europe because of the wide range of habitats with favourable vegetation compositions and ecological parameters. However, it presently represents no risk for endangered plant species and communities.
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Koutecký P., Tuleu G., Baďurová T., Košnar J., Štech M. & Těšitel J. (2012): Distribution of cytotypes and seasonal variation in the Odontites vernus group in central Europe. – Preslia 84: 887–904.
Based on differences in chromosome number two cytotypes were reported in the Odontites vernus group in central Europe by earlier studies. These cytotypes were also considered to correspond to two seasonal ecotypes that differ in phenology, morphology and ecology. In this study, we conducted a broad screening of central European populations of the O. vernus group using flow cytometry and morphological analysis of characters underpinning the seasonal variation (number of internodes).We confirmed the existence of a widespread diploid (2n = 2x = 18) with a high but variable number of internodes and an early-flowering tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) with a low number of internodes occurring on fallows or as an agricultural weed. In contrast to previous studies, we discovered an additional type, which is a distinctly late-flowering tetraploid (2n = 4x = 40) that has the highest number of internodes of all the three types. These plants were mostly recorded in disturbed places in thermophilous steppic grassland and sporadically also in meadows in moderately warm regions. Thus, the close association between seasonal and cytotypic variation was rejected in favour of a concept of a seasonally undifferentiated diploid type, which is an ecological generalist, and two seasonally and ecologically distinct tetraploid types. The reproductive isolation may be based mainly on incompatibility between the ploidy levels (diploid vs. tetraploid plants) and phenological differentiation in the time of reproduction (early vs. late tetraploids).
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Kúr P., Štech M., Koutecký P. & Trávníček P. (2012): Morphological and cytological variation in Spergularia echinosperma and S. rubra, and notes on potential hybridization of these two species. – Preslia 84: 905–924.
Morphological and cytological variation in Spergularia echinosperma and S. rubra and the possibility of these two species hybridizing were investigated. The plant material was collected mainly in the western- and southern-Bohemian pond basins where S. echinosperma is most abundant. Using flow cytometry, we found diploid and tetraploid cytotypes among plants morphologically identified as S. echinosperma and only tetraploid S. rubra. The two tetraploid cytotypes differed significantly in genome size. Both the diploid and tetraploid S. echinosperma and S. rubra also differed morphologically. The most important identification characters were stipule length together with stipule length/width ratio, seed colour, seed size and testa verrucosity. Although the morphological data suggest that tetraploid S. echinosperma may be a hybrid between diploid S. echinosperma and S. rubra, its genome size was significantly greater than that of a simulated allotetraploid. Since an increase in genome size following allopolyploidization is an improbable event, it is possible that other pathways were involved in the formation of tetraploid S. echinosperma. The nomenclature of S. echinosperma was also studied. Lectotypification of the name with a plant morphologically corresponding to the diploid cytotype is proposed. The morphological analysis also indicates that the holotype of S. ×kurkae, which was described as a putative hybrid between S. echinosperma × S. rubra, corresponds to tetraploid S. echinosperma.
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Hemrová L. & Münzbergová Z. (2012): Identification of suitable unoccupied habitats: direct versus an indirect approach. – Preslia 84: 925–937.
Identification of habitats suitable for a species is a key task when studying landscape dynamics. Direct (cultivation experiments) or indirect (species distribution models) methods are employed to identify both suitable but currently unoccupied habitats and habitats that are unsuitable yet occupied (remnant populations). Although both direct and indirect approaches have been used increasingly in recent years the predictive power of cultivation experiments and of models based on different types of data have not been compared. In the present study, we compare the predictive power of distribution models for a short-lived herbaceous plant, Jasione montana. Our models are based on the environmental characteristics of the habitats, on the species composition of the habitats, or on both of these types of data. The predictions of the different models were compared (using AUC values) with the results of our cultivation experiment. We found that the models based on the species composition of the habitats performed better than the model based only on environmental characteristics. The models also differed significantly in the unoccupied habitats they identified as suitable. The most accurate was the model based on both environmental characteristics and species composition. This model also significantly explained both the presence/absence and abundance of J. montana individuals in the cultivation experiment. Nevertheless, the variation in occurrence of J. montana in the cultivation experiment explained by this model was below 50%. We therefore assume that the predictions of this model, in spite of the high AUC values, were inaccurate for at least some habitats. The results of this study are species and landscape specific, so they cannot be generalized. Our study, however, demonstrates that assembling data on both environmental characteristics and species composition of habitats is likely to be useful for predicting habitat suitability at a landscape scale. This study also demonstrates that a high AUC value is not a guarantee that a model’s prediction is reliable because a cultivation experiment may provide different results. When identifying habitats that are suitable for a species (e.g. for the purpose of a metapopulation study), the results should be subjected to a sensitivity analysis.
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