Abstracts of volume 69, 1997
Krahulcová A. (1997): Karyology in Compositae.
- Preslia, Praha, 69): 3-8. [In Czech]
A brief review is given, summarizing a basic knowledge attained up to now in study of chromosomes in Compositae. The extensive variation in chromosome numbers within the family is pointed out. The mechanism of changes in basic chromosome number, as well as the impact of polyploidy on speciation is discussed. The phenomenon of karyotype asymmetry is emphasized, in connection with evolution of specialized taxa occupying unstable habitats. Methods of molecular genetics (isoenzyme analysis, DNA analysis) are essential tools to verify preceding hypotheses about phylogeny in Compositae, often based on karyological data. Examples of such studies in Compositae, complementing karyological and biochemical methods one another, are given from the recent literature.
Pyšek P. (1997): Compositae as invaders:
better than the others? - Preslia, Praha, 69: 9-22.
Records of alien species in 26 local floras all over the globe were analysed. The representation of Compositae in these floras was assessed and compared with that of other families contributing most to the alien floras. The Compositae were present in all alien floras and by contributing 13.5 % on average represent the second most represented family (after Gramineae). Comparison of their performance in alien floras (13.5 %) with their proportion of the world flora (8.4 %) indicates that they are over-represented among aliens. When using a relative measure, i.e. relating species numbers to the global species pool in a family, Compositae rank about average. However, the family is remarkably successful in terms of dispersal and establishment.
Zelený V. (1997): Current generic concepts
in the Chrysanthemum-complex. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 23-29. [In Czech]
Changes in conception and contents of the genus Chrysanthemum from the Linnaean period up to now are compared. C. Linnaeus described 14 species of the genus; since then almost 200 more species were described. At present, rather narrow conception of genera, supported by the cladistic method, is accepted. For this reason, the division of the genus Chrysanthemum into 12 genera appears to be justified. Based on literature and own observations, the Chrysanthemum species occuring in the Czech Republic are reviewed. Both native and cultivated species are considered. On the morphological basis, the species are classified into 11 genera.
Tomšovic P. (1997): Some palynological observations
on the genus Echinops L. (Asteraceae) and their taxonomical
implications. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 31-33.
Based on pollen grain morphology and having regard to other characters the following recommendations concerning the taxonomy of the genus Echinops are made: (i) The genera Echinops and Acantholepis are not so closely related as it may appear; the former genus represents a monotypical tribe Echinopae Cass. [emend.]; the latter genus and species (Acantholepis orientalis Less.) belongs to the tribe Cardueae Cass., subtrib. Carlinineae Cass. The tendency of the anthodia to be reduced to one flower only can evidently appear in different parts of the Asteraceae. (ii) In Echinops, the species E. strigosus is very different and should be classified as a separate genus Psectra (Endlicher) Tomšovic including one species Psectra strigosa (L.) Tomšovic.
Kirschner J. & Štěpánek J. (1997): Notes
on the series Taraxaca Exsiccata, Fasc. V–VII (Studies in Taraxacum
16). - Preslia, Praha, 69: 35-58.
A list of the exsiccate series of Taraxaca Exsiccata, Fasc. V–VII, is provided. Six new species are described, three species intermediate between the sections Ruderalia and Palustria, the others are common Central European species of Ruderalia. Nomenclatural and taxonomic notes on T. vindobonense, T. quadrangulum and T. johannis-jansenii are added.
Řehořek V. (1997): Cultivated and escaped
perennial Helianthus species in Europe. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 59-70.
Eight perennial species and at least 2 hybrids of the North-American genus Helianthus L. occur in Europe. Most of them, i.e. H. atrorubens L., H. decapetalus L., H. giganteus L., H. mollis Lam., H. rigidus (Cass.) Desf., H. salicifolius A. Dietr., and H. strumosus L., as well as both hybrids (H. ×multiflorus L. pro sp. and H. ×laetiflorus Pers. pro sp.) are cultivated as decorative plants. Only one species - Jerusalem artichoke, H. tuberosus L. is extensively cultivated as fodder or food crop and in past 50 years has been invading natural plant communities, particularly along riverbanks. The species is often considered as H. decapetalus. Taxonomic position of particular taxa, their origin, and invasive ability are discussed. Attention is also paid to nomenclatorical confusions and other errors occurring in the literature.
Kochjarová J. (1997): Taxonomic problems in
Tephroseris in the West Carpathians. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 71-93. [In Slovak]
A short review of the current knowledge on karyology, and chorology of the West Carpathian taxa of the genus Tephroseris (Reichenb.) Reichenb. is presented. The following species are considered: T. integrifolia, T. capitata, T. aurantiaca, T. crispa and T. longifolia subsp. moravica. The review is completed with some new original data. The lectotype of the name Cineraria capitata Wahlenb. is designated.
Feráková V. (1997): Artemisia austriaca
Jacq. - a critical species from the karyotaxonomical point of view. - Preslia,
Praha, 69: 95-113. [In Slovak]
The paper deals with karyotaxonomic differentiation of Artemisia austriaca. Two cytotypes , a diploid with 2n = 16 and a hexaploid with 2n = 48 have been known. Information on their distribution and variation , as well as some notes on the genus Artemisia are presented.
Turisová I. (1997): Crepis sibirica in
Slovakia. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 115-119. [In Slovak]
Both historical and present distribution of Crepis sibirica in Slovakia is reviewed. Only six localities of the species, distributed in four phytogeographical districts of the Western Carpathians, were confirmed in 1993-96. The abundance of C. sibirica at these localities is rather low.
Chrtek J. jun. (1997): Hieracium decipientiforme
(the H. nigrescens group) - an interesting species of the Ukrainian
Carpathians. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 121-128.
Hieracium decipientiforme (Woloszczak et Zahn) Šljakov, most probably an endemic taxon of the Ukrainian Carpathians, was found to be agamospermous tetraploid (2n=36). It occurs in mountain meadows, open places in krummholz stands and in subalpine grasslands in altitudes 1580-1900 m a.s.l. in the Gorgany Mts, the Čornohora Mts and the Marmaros Mts. Important distinguishing characters and relations to other related species groups are briefly discussed.
Mandák B. (1997): Seed heteromorphism and plant life
cycle: a review of literature. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 129-159.
The species which produce two or more seed types represent groups where divergent strategies usually existing in different taxa are combined by one individual. In such groups, there is a tendency for seed functions to diverge, each type specializing on some aspect of environmental variation to which it is predisposed while being buffered by the other seed type. Two main types of this behaviour are distinguished, i.e. heterodiaspory and amphicarpy, based on the morphology of diaspores, their spatial distribution on a plant, dispersibility, and other ecological functions. Ecology of heterodiasporic and amphicarpic plants is reviewed in relation to particular life cycle stages and habitat conditions. It is concluded that seed heteromorphism represents a) a form of bet-hedging in the face of temporal variation in environmental suitability in habitats where changes of environmental conditions from season to season and year to year are very frequent and no single pattern of ecological behaviour can ensure successful survival, b) escape from negative effects of density or c) sib competition and occurs because intermediate adaptation have low fitness.
Řepka R., Lustyk P. & Trávníček B. (1997):
Carex scoparia - a new alien sedge in Europe. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 161-168.
In 1992, Carex scoparia Schkuhr was found in the floodplain of the Latorica river (East-Slovakian Lowlands, Slovakia). This North American sedge is a new alien species in Slovakia and also, in Europe. The sites in which the species was found are described, and their phytosociological characteristics and results of soil analyses are presented. A detailed description of the species is provided and its characters important from the taxonomical point of view are compared with those of other related sedges known from the former Czechoslovakia, i.e. C. ovalis and C. muskingumensis. The features distinguishing C. scoparia from the closely related C. crawfordii are also mentioned. A key for determination of Central European representatives of sect. Ovales is provided. Possible ways of the species´ introduction to Central Europe are discussed.
Procházka F. (1997): Diphasiastrum oellgaardii -
a new species in the flora of the Czech Republic. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 169-
So far, only five species of Diphasiastrum have been reported from the Czech Republic, i.e. D. alpinum, D. tristachyum, D. complanatum, D. issleri, and D. zeilleri. The study of herbarium material (PRC) revealed one more species: Diphasiastrum oellgaardii Stoor, Boudrie, Jérôme, Horn et Bennert. This species was collected in the central part of the Šumava Mts., SW Bohemia. The localities recorded in the Czech Republic represent the easternmost limits of the known distribution range of the species.
Klimeš L. (1997): Variation in autumnal growth
of hermaphroditic clones of Glechoma hederacea originating from two
geographical regions and two habitats. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 175-183.
Eight hermaphroditic genotypes of Glechoma hederacea originating from two habitats and two geographical regions were compared under greenhouse conditions to test for differences in growth at the end of the vegetation period. During the 90 days of the experiment the plants developed primary stolons and secondary stolons, the latter up to four (rarely six) per node. Stolon lengths, mean internode length, mean leaf blade width and mean petiole length on primary stolons as well as the number of nodes, mean internode length and stolon length of the first two secondary stolons initiated at a node were genotype-dependent. The number of nodes and rooting nodes, mean internode length, stolon length and number of growing tips on the second pair of secondary stolons were population-dependent. No indication of ecotypic differentiation in clonal growth was found. The hypothesis suggesting that genotypes with short internodes and a high intensity of branching should dominate populations growing under high light levels (i.e. in meadows) was not supported.
Kovář P., Hassan E. A. & Brabec E. (1997):
Is the Vicia faba population affected by parasitism from Orobanche crenata
more than by competition from non-parasitic weeds? - Preslia, Praha, 69: 185-190.
Three experimental treatments were used to compare the growth and production of broadbean (Vicia faba cv. Giza 2), i.e. (1) in pure culture, (2) infected with the Mediterranean broomrape Orobanche crenata, and, (3) under competition with multispecies spontaneously grown community of non-parasitic weeds. The experiment was carried out in a glasshouse from March to July (in Central Bohemia, Czech Republic). The results suggest that the competitive effect of non-parasitic weeds was, under the given conditions, more pronounced than the effect of broomrape parasite on the broadbean yield and other parameters measured.
Kaplan Z. (1997): Names of Potamogeton
(Potamogetonaceae) proposed by Bohemian botanists in the period 1819-1902.
- Preslia, Praha, 69: 193-239.
Names of taxa of the genus Potamogeton proposed by Bohemian authors are discussed and typified. 74 names are listed, proposed by L. Čelakovský, F. X. Fieber, P. M. Opiz, J. S. Presl, K. B. Presl (= C. B. Presl), J. Rohlena, F. J. Ruprecht, D. Sloboda and I. F. Tausch. Three names and their types are of importance for contemporary plant taxonomy: P. berchtoldii Fieber, P. ×angustifolius J. S. Presl [= P. gramineus L. × P. lucens L.] and P. friesii Rupr. The study has also proved the justification of the use of these names. The correct name for the species known as P. malaianus [auct.] or P. mucronatus C. B. Presl is P. wrightii Morong. In order to preserve nomenclatural stability, a justification for the conservation of the name P. maackianus A. Benn. against P. serrulatus Regel et Maack is given.
Hendrych R. (1997): Thesium diffusum from
the geographical point of view. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 241-251. [In German]
Geographical aspects of distribution, and florogenesis of the species Thesium diffusum are described. The species is endemic of the middle part of Ukraine and of the border of southwestern Russia.
Balátová-Tuláčková E. (1997): Meadow communities
in the southern part of the Hornomoravský úval basin (Middle Moravia).
- Preslia, Praha, 69: 253-282.
In the southern part of the Hornomoravský úval basin, meadow communities are represented by 11 associations classified into the following alliances: Caricion gracilis (5 associations), Alopecurion (1), Molinion (2), Calthion (3) and Arrhenatherion (1). Among the associations of the class Molinio-Arrhenatheretea, only Alopecuretum pratensis and Arrhenatheretum elatioris are widely distributed in the region studied. Sanguisorbo-Festucetum commutatae has the centre of distribution in the phytogeographical district Hercynicum; Sanguisorbo-Silaetum pratensis and Scirpo-Cirsietum cani in continental areas, and Cirsietum rivularis in the Carpathians and Alps. Phytosociology, ecology and dynamics of the associations were studied. Dynamics of water regime and chemical and physical properties of the soil are the main determinants of floristic composition of the communities investigated.
Krahulcová A. & Holub J. (1997): Chromosome
number variation in the genus Rubus in the Czech Republic. II. - Preslia,
Praha, 69: 289-310.
Chromosome numbers are given for 26 species representing predominantly the subgenus Rubus (23 species) as well as the subgenera Chamaerubus (1 species) and Idaeobatus (2 species). The plants studied were collected from 84 localities in the Czech Republic (Bohemia and Moravia). Five ploidy levels were found including diploids (two species), triploids (five species), tetraploids (fifteen species), pentaploids (three species) and one octoploid: both diploids and the single octoploid do not belong to the subgenus Rubus. The chromosome numbers in the following thirteen species of the subgenus Rubus are reported here for the first time: R. graecensis Maurer, R. henrici-egonis Holub, R. austromoravicus Holub, R. crispomarginatus Holub (all triploid species, 2n = 21); R. micans Godron, R. caflischii Focke, R. chaerophyllus Sag. et W. Schultze, R. vratnensis Holub, R. centrobohemicus Holub, R. epipsilos Focke, R. bavaricus (Focke) Hruby, R. lusaticus Rostock and R. lividus G. Braun (all tetraploid species, 2n = 28). In addition to chromosome numbers, data on the geographical distribution of the species studied are also briefly mentioned. Rubus caflischii is reported here for the first time from the area of the Czech Republic (Český les Mts). Rubus graecensis was found as a new plant for Bohemia. Rubus micans occurs in the Czech Republic separated by a large hiatus of more than 700 km from its distribution in western Europe; it is also recorded as a new plant for the flora of Poland. The species R. caflischii, R. lividus, R. lusaticus and R. micans are known only from one locality each in the Czech Republic. All earlier data on R. grossus H. E. Weber 1989 from the Czech Republic belong to the newly described species R. kuleszae Zielinski 1996. R. crispomarginatus was found also in Germany and Austria as a new plant for the flora of these countries. A description of a new taxon - ser. Idaei Holub - belonging to subgen. Idaeobatus is given.
Slavík B. (1997): Distribution of the Geranium
species subgen. Robertium und Erodioideae in Czechia. - Preslia,
Praha, 69: 311-326. [In German]
A survey is given of the distribution of Geranium species (subgen. Robertium und Erodioideae) in the Czech Republic. Distribution maps are presented. The history of successive naturalization of the introduced species Geranium pyrenaicum Burm. fil. is described and distribution data since the first report in 1815 up to 1900 are given. For G. divaricatum Ehrh. and G. molle L. complete lists of revised localities are given.
Krahulcová A. & Tomšovic P. (1997):
Ploidy levels in some European representatives of Suaeda maritima group.
- Preslia, Praha, 69: 327-332.
Chromosome numbers are given for three species of the Suaeda maritima group, differentiated into three ploidy levels: diploid Suaeda prostrata Pallas (2n = 2x = 18), tetraploid Suaeda maritima (L.) Dumort. (2n = 4x = 36) and octoploid Suaeda pannonica (Beck) Graebn. (2n = 8x = 72). The plants studied were collected in the Pannonian region of Europe; in addition, S. maritima s. str. also originated from three other European localities. Octoploidy, revealed in S. pannonica for the first time, is the highest ploidy level found in the genus in Europe. The genus Suaeda, comprised predominantly of annuals, displays a wide variation in ploidy levels (up to 10x), as is illustrated here by literature data. The importance of polyploidy in evolution of annual taxa is briefly discussed.
Kochjarová J., Marhold K. & Hrouda L. (1997):
Contribution towards the knowledge of the flora and vegetation of the Jánska
dolina Valley and Mt. Ohnište in the Nízke Tatry Mts. (Slovakia).- Preslia,
Praha, 69: 333-358. [In Slovak]
A detailed account of the flora of the Jánska dolina Valley and Mt. Ohnište in the Nízke Tatry Mts is presented, based on fieldwork and the evaluation of data from literature, together with phytocoenological notes. The local flora of this area comprises more than 700 taxa (species and subspecies) of vascular plants, out of which around 90 belong to the group of endangered taxa of the flora of Slovakia. Thermophilous plants, rare in the higher altitudes of other parts of the Central West Carpathians, occur here together with other typically mountain species.
Krahulec F. & Jiřiště L. (1997): Bromopsis
pumpelliana subsp. flexuosa - a new plant of the flora of the Czech
Republic. - Preslia, Praha, 69: 359-362. [In Czech]
Bromopsis pumpelliana (Scribn.) Holub subsp. flexuosa (Drobov) Probatova was found as an adventitious species growing on a wet mountain meadow in the Krkonoše Mountains, at an altitude of about 970 m. The species forms a dense stand there and it appears that it has occurred at the locality for a long time, because there have been no agricultural activities since the end of the 2nd World War. The origin of B. pumpelliana at this locality is unknown, subsp. flexuosa being native in Eastern Siberia and the Far East of Russia. Chromosome number 2n=56 found in plants from the adventitious locality is in agreement with Siberian plants. A detailed synonymy and description is given as it is probably the first time the species is reported from Central Europe.
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