The Institute of Botany of the CAS is one of the research institutes of the Czech Academy of Sciences. The Institute carries out fundamental research on species, populations and communities of plants. The following diverse fields of study are represented: taxonomy, biosystematics and phytogeography of higher and lower plants (e.g., algology, ecotoxicology, mycology and lichenology), plant ecology (population biology, synecology, comparative and production ecology, ecophysiology), mycorrhizal symbioses, vegetation studies including vegetation mapping and paleoecology. Currently, it is especially concerned with biodiversity and evolutionary trends among plants, ecology of invasive species, responses of plants and vegetation to environmental changes and the mechanisms that enable species to coexist in ecosystems.
The institute also maintains the Průhonice Park with extensive collections of native and introduced plants.